Episode 1: Necho II’s Expedition and the Early Mediterranean Explorers

We begin in 500 BCE in order to set the stage for the coming voyages of the early Mediterranean explorers, as well as take a look at Necho II’s reported expedition to circumnagivate Africa.


A statue of Egyptian Pharaoh Necho II, who launched the Phoenician expedition to circumnavigate Libya (Africa).

world map

This is Anaximander’s world map, showing the 3 continents and the “outer ocean” which he believed encircled the world until it reached the void. Anaximander believed the world was slightly concave, like the shape of a contact lens.


This is a highly speculative rendering of Necho II’s possible Africa expedition. We should note here that Punt is placed significantly farther south than most historians place it, and that the map-maker has placed the location of the Phoenicians’ first major halt at Saint Helena Bay.

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